EARTH "THE BLUE MARBLE"

EARTH "THE BLUE MARBLE"
Designations :
Alternate name(s) Terra
Orbital characteristics :
Epoch J2000.0
Aphelion 152,098,232 km
1.01671388 AU
Perihelion 147,098,290 km
0.98329134 AU
Semi-major axis 149,598,261 km
1.00000261 AU
Eccentricity 0.01671123
Orbital period 365.256363004 days
1.000017421 yr
Average orbital speed 29.78 km/s
107,200 km/h
Mean anomaly 357.51716°
Inclination 7.155° to Sun's equator
1.57869° to invariable plane
Longitude of ascending node 348.73936°
Argument of perihelion 114.20783°
Satellites 1 natural (The Moon)
994 artificial (as of 31 December 2011 (2011 -12-31)[update])
Physical characteristics
Mean radius 6,371.0 km
Equatorial radius 6,378.1 km
Polar radius 6,356.8 km
Flattening 0.0033528
Circumference 40,075.017 km (equatorial)
40,007.86 km (meridional)
Surface area 510,072,000 km sq.
148,940,000 km sq. land (29.2 %)


361,132,000 km sq. water (70.8 %)
Volume 1.08321×1012 km cube
Mass 5.9736×1024 kg
Mean density 5.515 g/cm cube
Equatorial surface gravity 9.780327 m/s sq.
0.99732 g
Escape velocity 11.186 km/s
Sidereal rotation
period 0.99726968 d
23h 56m 4.100s
Equatorial rotation velocity 1,674.4 km/h (465.1 m/s)
Axial tilt 23°26'21".4119
Albedo 0.367 (geometric)
0.306 (Bond)
Surface temp.
Kelvin
Celsius min mean max
184 K 287.2 K 331 K
−89.2 °C 14 °C 57.8 °C

Atmosphere :
Surface pressure 101.325 kPa (MSL)
Composition 78.08% nitrogen (N2)
20.95% oxygen (O2)
0.93% argon
0.038% carbon dioxide
About 1% water vapor (varies with climate)