Reddy's youth

We are unique...

రెడ్డి
Classification Feudal lords, Warriors, Zamindars, Farmers
Religions Hinduism
Languages
Telugu (Mother tongue)
Tamil
Kannada
Country India
Original state Andhra Pradesh
Populated States
Andhra Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
Karnataka
Maharashtra
Kerala
Region South India
Subdivisions
Reddy — Andhra Pradesh
Reddiar — Tamil Nadu, Kerala
Reddappa — Rayalaseema, Karnataka
Related groups Kapu, Vellalar and Vokkaliga
Status Forward
Kingdom (original) Reddy Kingdom
Reddy (Telugu: రెడ్డి Kannada: ರೆಡ್ಡಿ), also transliterated as Ruddy, Roddy, Raddi, Reddi) is a social group or caste of India, predominantly inhabiting Andhra Pradesh. They are enlisted as a forward caste[5][6] by the government. Traditionally, they are a high-caste community of nobility, warriors and cultivators.[7][8][9] According to academics, they were a warrior caste in the remote past and later became feudal overlords and peasant proprietors.[8][10] Historically they have been the land-owning[11][12] aristocracy of the villages.[13][4] Their prowess as rulers and warriors is well documented in Telugu history.[2][3][14]The Reddy dynasty (1325 - 1448 CE) ruled coastal and central Andhra for over a hundred years.[3] The origin of the social group of Reddys has been linked to the Rashtrakutas.[15][16][17]
Reddys regard Telugu as their mother tongue.[18] According to the 1921 census, they constituted 6.5% of the population of Andhra Pradesh.[19] There is also significant population of Reddys in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and states of India as well as in the United States and the United Kingdom.


Etymology

The word Reddy derives from the great "Rathis" or "Rattis", also known as the "Rattas" or "Rashtrikas" who ruled the Deccan from ancient times. The word "Rathi" or "Ratti" is also found under various forms such as Reddi, Ratta, Rashtrakuta, Rahtor, Rathaur. Some linguists also surmised the word Reddy originated from the medieval term Rattodu, which is derived from Rashtrakutudu. One more theory is that the word "Rashtrakuta" is the Sanskrit version of the word "Rettakudi". Rettakudi is converted into Rettadi and later Reddy.

Varna status

The varna designation of Reddys is a contested and complex topic. To fully comprehend the complexities and the contentiousness of varna related topics in south India, it is important to understand the pre-Brahmin era in the history of south India. The south Indian society did not subscribe to chaturvarna or the four fold varna concept. Even after the introduction of the varna concept to southern India by the arrival of Brahmins, caste boundaries in south India were not as marked as in north India. In north India there existed a four-tier varna system which placed the priestly Brahmins on top followed by the Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras. This four fold system did not hold the same relevance in south Indian society. In south India, there existed only three distinguishable classes, the Brahmins, non-Brahmins and the scheduled castes and tribes. The two intermediate dvija varnas, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas did not exist.
The ruling castes of south India like Reddys and Nairs held a status in society analogous to the Kshatriyas, Vaishyas of the north with the difference that religion did not sanctify them i.e they were not accorded the status of Kshatriyas and Vaishyas by the Brahmins in the Brahmanical varna system. The ruling south Indian clans like Reddys became the military elites and have been described as taking the caste status of Kshatriyas. Historically, Reddys have belonged to the kingly/ruling class and are analogous to the Kshatriyas of the Brahmanical society. It should be noted that in Andhra, before the arrival of Brahmins, the hierarchical social order placed the priests below the warrior/kingly classes like Reddys, Kammas and Velamas.
After the arrival of Brahmins to southern India, the Brahmins placed themselves on top of the hierarchical social order. They viewed the ruling castes like the Reddys, Nairs and Vellalars as sat-Shudras meaning shudras of "true being”. Sat-shudras are also known as clean shudras, upper shudras, pure or high-caste shudras.This classification and also the four fold Brahmanical varna concept has never been accepted by the ruling castes like Reddys, Vellalars and Nairs. They challenged the authority of Brahmins who described them as shudras.

Origin

The Rashtrakutas and Reddys seem to share a similar origin, from the great "Rattas" or "Rathis" or "Rashtrikas" who ruled the Deccan from ancient times. The "Rathis" ruled over small principalities in the Deccan plateau before 200 BCE, before the Satavahanas and Mauryas. The word "Rathi" or "Ratti" is found under various forms such as Reddi, Ratta, Rashtrakuta, Rahtor, Rathaur. They left coins in northern Andhra Pradesh, Kurnool district, and near Pune. The coins are found in the levels between the megalithic and Satavahana levels in excavations. The usage of the word Reddy specifically was first seen in the inscriptions made during the Renati Chola period (7th century CE).[35]
The 19th century writer Edgar Thurston in his book, Castes and Tribes of Southern India stated that Reddys were the village chiefs and listed them under the section Kapu. The village chiefs were given the title 'Reddy'. The census carried out during the British period in the Madras Presidency listed Reddy and Kapu together. People belonging to other agrarian communities such as Telaga, Balija, Kamma, Velama and Yadava sometimes use 'Reddy' title in their names.
[edit]Early history
The Rashtrakutas were initially the elite troops of the Chalukyas.[36] They founded an empire after the Badami Chalukyas faded from the scene. After the Rashtrakutas declined, the Kalyani Chalukyas succeeded them. The Kalyani Chalukyas often appointed Raddis (Rashtrakuta soldiers) as chieftains of villages. The inscriptions of the Kalyani Chalukyas in Andhra Pradesh mention Reddys (900 CE). A Kalyani Chalukyan inscription dated 1065 CE found in Mulug in Medak district of Andhra Pradesh records the procedure of how one Kadiraddi Miniraddi was formally appointed as headman of the area in the presence of other headmen and important persons (maha janam) of the neighbouring areas. The witnesses include Reddys of the villages around Mulug. The inscription mentions the name of the appointee, the authorized appointer, the important personages of the areas and surrounding villages.
[edit]Medieval history

[edit]Kakatiya period


Water colour painting - Kondavidu fort, Reddy Kingdom
After the decline of Kalyani Chalukyas at the beginning of the 12th century, Prola II (1110-1158 CE) declared himself independent from the Chalukyas and established the Kakatiya dynasty.[38] Prola used the title of Reddi[39] in his inscriptions.[40]The first of the Reddy clans came into prominence during this period. The Reddy chiefs were appointed as generals and soldiers under the Kakatiyas. Reddys were among the feudatories of Kakatiya ruler Pratapa Rudra. During this time, the Reddys carved out feudal principalities for themselves. Prominent among them were the Munagala Reddy chiefs. Two inscriptions found in the Zamindari of Munagala at Tadavayi, two miles west of Munagala - one dated 1300 CE, and the other dated 1306 CE show that the Munagala Reddy chiefs were feudatories to the Kakatiya dynasty. The inscriptions proclaim Annaya Reddy of Munagala as a chieftain of Kakatiya ruler Pratapa Rudra.[41][42][43]
The Reddy feudatories fought against invading muslim sultans and defended the region from coming under muslim rule.[44] Eventually, the muslim army of the Delhi Sultanate invaded Warangal and captured Pratapa Rudra. After the death of Pratapa Rudra in 1323 CE and the subsequent fall of the Kakatiya empire, the Reddy chiefs became independent. Prolaya Vema Reddy proclaimed independence and established the Reddy kingdom in Addanki.[45][46][43][47][48][49]
[edit]Reddy dynasty
Main article: Reddy dynasty


Kondapalli fort built by Prolaya Vema Reddy, Reddy Kingdom


Palace ruins, Kondapalli fort, Reddy Kingdom
The Reddy dynasty (1325 - 1448 CE) ruled coastal and central Andhra for over a hundred years.[14][3][38][43][50][51] The Reddy chieftains who were feudatories to the Kakatiya dynasty became independent after the death of Kakatiya ruler Pratapa Rudra in 1323 CE and the subsequent fall of the Kakatiya empire. Prolaya Vema Reddy proclaimed independence and established the Reddy kingdom in Addanki.[45][46][43][47][48][49] The Reddy dynasty that first rose to power came from the Pantakula or the Panta Vamsa Reddys.[46] Prolaya Vema Reddy was the first king of the Reddy dynasty.[52] Prolaya Vema Reddy was part of a coalition of Telugu rulers who overthrew the invading muslim armies and then established independent kingdoms of their own.[53] The capital of the Reddy kingdom was Addanki which was moved to Kondavidu and subsequently to Rajahmundry.[54]His reign was characterized by restoration of peace, patronage of arts and literature, and all round development. Errana, the translator of Ramayana, lived during this period.
[edit]Extent of rule


Water colour painting - Bellamkonda fort, Reddy Kingdom
They ruled coastal and central Andhra for over a hundred years from 1325 to 1448 CE. At its maximum extent, the Reddy kingdom stretched from Simhachalam to the north, Kanchi to the south and Srisailam to the west.[43] The initial capital of the kingdom was Addanki. Later it was moved to Kondavidu and subsequently to Rajahmundry.[54]The Reddys were known for their fortifications. Two major hill forts, one at Kondapalli, north west of Vijayawada and another at Kondavidu near Guntur stand testimony to the fort building skill of the Reddys.[55][56][46] The forts of Bellamkonda, Vinukonda and Nagarjunakonda in the Palnadu region were also part of the Reddy kingdom.[43][57] The dynasty remained in power till the middle of the 15th century and was supplanted by the Gajapatis of Orissa, who gained control of coastal Andhra.[46] The Gajapatis eventually lost control of coastal Andhra after the death of Gajapati ruler Kapilendra. The territories of the Reddy kingdom eventually came under the control of the Vijayanagara Empire.[58][48]
[edit]Vijayanagara period
The post-Kakatiya period saw the emergence of the Reddy kingdom (established in 1325 CE) and the Vijayanagara Empire (established in 1336 CE).[49] Initially, the rising kingdoms of Vijayanagara and the Reddy kingdom were locked up in a territorial struggle for supremacy in the coastal region of Andhra. Later, they united and became allies against their common archrivals – the Bahmani sultans and the Recherla Velamas of Rachakonda who had formed an alliance. This political alliance between Vijayanagara and the Reddy kingdom was cemented further by a matrimonial alliance. Harihara II of Vijayanagara gave his daughter in marriage to Kataya Vema Reddy’s son Kataya. The Reddy rulers of Rajahmundry exercised a policy of annexation and invasion of Kalinga (modern day Orissa). However, the suzerainty of Kalinga rulers was to be recognized. In 1443 CE, determined to put an end to the aggressions of the Reddy kingdom, the Gajapati ruler Kapilendra of Kalinga formed an alliance with the Velamas and launched an attack on the Reddy kingdom of Rajahmundry. Veerabhadra Reddy allied himself with Vijayanagara ruler Devaraya II and defeated Kapilendra. After the death of Devaraya II in 1446 CE, he was succeeded by his son, Mallikarjuna Raya. Overwhelmed by difficulties at home, Mallikarjuna Raya recalled the Vijayanagara forces from Rajahmundry. Veerabhadra Reddy died in 1448 CE. Seizing this opportunity, the Gajapati ruler Kapilendra sent an army under the leadership of his son Hamvira into the Reddy kingdom, took Rajahmundry and gained control of the Reddy kingdom. The Gajapatis eventually lost control of coastal Andhra after the death of Kapilendra. The territories of the Reddy kingdom eventually came under the control of the Vijayanagara Empire.[59]
Later, Reddys became the military chieftains of the Vijayanagara rulers. They along with their private armies accompanied and supported the Vijayanagara army in the conquest of new territories. These chieftains were known by the title of Poligars.[60][61] The Reddy poligars were appointed to render military services in times of war, collect revenue from the populace and pay to the royal treasury. The chieftains exercised considerable autonomy in their respective provinces. The ancestors of the legendary Uyyalawada Narasimha Reddy - who led an armed rebellion against the British East India company, were poligars.[62] The Reddys were historically dominant in the province of Rayalaseema[63] – part of modern day Andhra Pradesh. By the end of the 16th century, during the regime of the Vijayanagara King Aliya Ramaraju, when the Vijayanagara empire was declining, several poligar chieftains from Rayalaseema declared their independence and continued to rule over their territories.[60]
Once independent, the erstwhile chiefs of the Vijayanagara empire indulged in several internal squabbles for supremacy in their areas. This constant warring between powerful feudal warlords for fiefdoms and power manifests itself even in modern day Rayalaseema in the form of a brutally violent phenomenon termed as “factionalism”, “factional violence” or simply “faction”.[64] Thus the origin of factionalism in Rayalaseema can be traced to the Poligar chieftains of the medieval period.[61]
[edit]Golkonda period
During this period, Reddys ruled several "samsthanams" (dominions) in the Telangana area. They ruled as vassals of Golkonda sultans. Prominent among them were Ramakrishna Reddy, Pedda Venkat Reddy and Immadi Venkat Reddy. In the 16th century, the Pangal fort situated in Mahbubnagar district of Andhra Pradesh was ruled by Veera Krishna Reddy. Immadi Venkat Reddy was recognized by the Golkonda sultan Abdullah Qutb Shah as a regular provider of military forces to the Golkonda armies.[65] The Gadwal samsthanam situated in Mahbubnagar was ruled by King Somasekhar Ananda Reddy also known as Raja Somanadri. The famous Gadwal fort was built in 1710 CE by Raja Somanadri.[66] Reddys continued to be chieftains, village policemen and tax collectors in the Telangana region, throughout the Golkonda rule.
[edit]Nizam period


Raja Bahadur Venkatarama Reddy - Kotwal of Hyderabad 1920 - 1934 CE
Reddys were the landed gentry known as the deshmukhs and part of the Nizam's administration. The Reddy landlords styled themselves as Desais , Doras and Patel. Several Reddys were noblemen in the court of Nizam Nawabs and held many high positions in the Nizam's administrative set up. Raja Bahadur Venkatarama Reddy was made Kotwal of Hyderabad in 1920 CE during the reign of the seventh Nizam Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII. Raja Bahadur Venkatarama Reddy was the first Hindu to be made kotwal of Hyderabad as in the late 19th and early 20th century, during the Islamic rule of the Nizams, the powerful position of Kotwal of Hyderabad was held only by muslims. His tenure lasted almost 14 years and he commanded great respect among the public for his outstanding police administration. He was conferred the title of Order of the British Empire (OBE) by King George V.
Several Reddys were at the forefront of the anti-Nizam movement. In 1941, communist leaders Raavi Narayana Reddy and Baddam Yella Reddy transformed the Andhra Mahasabha into an anti-Nizam united mass militant organisation and led an armed struggle against the Nizam's regime. A. Lakshmi Narasimha Reddy and Kodanda Rami Reddy were also part of this movement.
[edit]British period
Reddys ruled many local dominions (samsthanams) until the British seized their power.The British appointed Reddys as zamindars and tax collectors. They were also enlisted in the British army. One of most prominent figures from the community during the British period is Uyyalawada Narasimha Reddy. He challenged the British and led an armed rebellion against the British East India company in 1846. He was finally captured and hanged in 1847. His uprising was one of the earlier rebellions against the British rule in India as it was 10 years before the famous Indian Rebellion of 1857
[edit]Zamindaris
Some of the prominent Reddy zamindaris/samsthanams:
Munagala – Gurlapaty clan
Gadwal – Raja Somasekhar Ananda Reddy or Somanadri
Wanaparthy (Originally known as Sugur) – Founded by Veera Krishna Reddy
Domakonda
Amarhinta
Chundi
Vardhamanapuram - Gona clan
[edit]Modern history

As one of the prominent land-owning communities of Andhra Pradesh, Reddys have always had a close relationship with land and agriculture. Early 20th century ethnographer Edgar Thurston in his book, Castes and Tribes of Southern India writes -
the Reddis are provident. They spend their money on the land, but are not parsimonious. The gold ornaments worn by the women or the men are of the finest kind of gold. Their houses are always neat and well built, and the Reddis give the idea of good substantial ryots, and are a fine, powerful race.
Presently Reddys are found in various fields such as industry, commerce, and skilled professions.
[edit]Role in politics
Influenced by their long tradition as rulers, military chieftains and village headmen, Reddys continue to be very active in local, state and national politics. Reddy community holds the distinction of producing the most number of Chief Ministers for the state of Andhra Pradesh. Particularly in the state of Andhra Pradesh, a number of former chief ministers and business leaders belong to this community. The list of chief ministers include Bezawada Gopala Reddy, Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, Bhavanam Venkataram Reddy, Tanguturi Anjaiah, Marri Chenna Reddy , Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy and Kiran Kumar Reddy who collectively ruled the state for more than 25 years after the formation of state in 1956. Neelam Sanjiva Reddy was the sixth President of India.
One of the prominent leaders of the Congress Party of Andhra Pradesh, ex-Chief Minister, Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy was instrumental in introducing several innovative schemes for the upliftment of the rural farmers and the poor of the state which earned him the affectionate sobriquet "Man of the Masses". Most noted of them is the highly successful Rajiv Arogyasri health insurance scheme for all persons below poverty line whereby the latest techniques in surgery were made available to the poor and needy who otherwise would not have access to quality healthcare.